- Functions and effects on the body
- Free testosterone index
- Causes of abnormality and symptoms
- Methods of normalizing hormone
Testosterone is one of the major hormones that is related to the male sex hormones androgens. It is responsible for the formation and maintenance of normal male health, reproductive function, has an impact on muscle mass and behavior.
Testosterone is classified into three types: protein bound, loosely bound and in a free state.
Functions and effects on the body
Testosterone free (TC) is a form of the male hormone that is not associated with proteins. Under the influence of chemical reactions, free-form testosterone can enter the cells of the body, affecting the internal processes.
Free testosterone is the smallest of all three species. As a percentage, its amount is about 2% of the total testosterone. Nevertheless, its effect on the male body is enormous. He is responsible for sexual function and the formation of male signs:
- The formation of genital organs;
- Male type of hair distribution;
- Sexual desire and behavior;
- Sperm synthesis;
- Sperm quality, namely motility and sperm concentration;
- The formation of the male skeleton and muscle mass;
The level of TC in the male body is not constant and may vary depending on the age, season, time of day, physical and psychological condition of the man.
During the day, the amount of testosterone varies from maximum in the morning and decreases in the evening.
The presence of 4.25 – 42 pg / ml TS in the blood of men 20-50 years old is considered normal. Its level is in the maximum amount during puberty and decreases after 35-40 years of age. After 40 years, the secretion of free testosterone is reduced by 2.5% per year. In 50 years, the level of TS decreases by 7% compared with 30 years of age, and 70-year-olds by 22%.
A sign of a lack of free hormone can be :
- Delayed sexual development;
- Decrease in sexual desire;
- Problems with potency;
- Rapid obesity;
- Profuse rash of acne;
- Mood swings;
- Increased timbre of voice;
- Increased sweating.
Signs of increased free testosterone :
- Abundant hair growth all over the body, but with baldness;
- Rapid muscle growth;
- Increased sexual attraction;
- Frequent aggressiveness and rudeness.
- Frequent headaches.
The above signs are a reason to check the level of the hormone.
Free testosterone index
Most often, to identify the causes of the disease, a total testosterone (TO) is analyzed. It shows the total amount of male hormone in the blood. Since part of TO is connected with proteins, the result will also depend on changes in the concentration of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Globulin may be elevated or lowered with cirrhosis, thyroid malfunction, obesity, medication.
The calculation of free testosterone (TS) gives the result of the amount of androgen, regardless of protein. Therefore, for more accurate information about the hormone is calculated TC. At the same time, the definition of free and bioavailable testosterone is more difficult and not always available in laboratory conditions.
To calculate the TS, the term “free testosterone index (ICT)” was introduced.
It is calculated as a percentage of the total testosterone concentration with the concentration of SHBG, the result is multiplied by 100.
The number of TS must be measured for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases:
- hormonal disruptions;
- reduced sperm count;
- violation of potency;
- suspected cancer;
- acne treatment;
- to control the use of drugs with androgens;
- in the absence of manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics or their excessive manifestation.
When detecting deviations of the level of the vehicle from the norm up or down, additional tests and diagnostics are possible to identify the causes.
Causes of abnormality and symptoms
The deficiency and excess of the level of free testosterone not of short duration can provoke the following diseases and factors:
- problems with the cardiovascular system;
- prostate cancer;
- chronic prostatitis;
- constant stress;
- unhealthy diet;
- inactive lifestyle;
- injuries of the penis and genitourinary system;
- complications after an infectious or chronic illness;
- taking certain medications;
- reduced immunity;
Methods of normalizing hormone
It is possible to bring the concentration of free testosterone to normal levels if you follow a comprehensive course of treatment. It includes the following activities:
- good rest;
- proper nutrition;
- systematic moderate exercise;
- smoking cessation, alcohol and other bad habits.
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By such methods it is possible to achieve a correction of testosterone to a normal indicator. But, if a serious disease is detected, which provoked an increase or decrease in the hormone, the attending physician will prescribe medications to eliminate the cause of the deviation from the norm. Therefore, it is necessary to use only those drugs that are assigned individually by the practicing physician, and under his control.