Signs and causes of bacterial prostatitis, possible complications



  • Risk group
  • Causes of disease
  • Types and forms
  • Symptomatology
  • Complications
  • Diagnostics

Prostatitis is an exclusively male disease that causes inflammation in the prostate gland. If the inflammation is provoked by an infection that has got into the prostate gland, such prostatitis is called bacterial or infectious, which is acute or chronic. Pathology is caused by 2 types of microorganisms: intestinal bacteria and a group of genital infections. The cunning of the disease is that it quickly transforms into a chronic stage, leading to complications, discomfort, problems of an intimate, psychological nature.

Risk group

The disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the tissues of the prostate gland, located under the bladder and performing reproductive function, is more common in men who have stepped over the 50-year mark. Those with prostatitis in the age range from 18 to 25 years old make up about 20%, and the largest percentage of the incidence is after the age of 50. According to statistics, every third man is sick with the bacterial form of prostatitis, since the age of 17.

Causes of disease

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All factors of bacterial prostatitis are divided into congenital and acquired. The congenital anatomical and physiological features of the gland with a specific blood supply, leading to dysfunction of the internal secretion organ. The acquired factors concern the quality of life, external influences, at which the conditionally pathogenic microflora is activated, which normally does not cause harm to human health.
Infection can penetrate the prostate in several ways:

  • Through the urethra during unprotected sexual intercourse, with balanitis , balanopostitis or non-observance of hygiene of the sexual organ.

There are the following bacteria that enter the male body sexually:

  • гонококки;
  • трихомонады ;
  • chlamydia ;
  • ureaplasma ;
  • mycoplasma;
  • Gardnerella;
  • Treponema pallidum.

Microbes multiply actively, causing disruption of the functions of the prostate gland.

  • Through the bloodstream from other inflamed organs. Bacterial prostatitis is possible with sore throat, pneumonia. Close connections of the prostate with the intestines have to the migration of pathogenic microflora in the blood and lymph. Therefore, persistent constipation can also lead to inflammation of the prostate. Various diseases of a viral, bacterial nature, including caries, can also become a source of inflammation in the male reproductive system.
  • Through lymphatic vessels , infection with syphilis , diabetes, and tuberculosis is possible.
    Pathogenic microbes that live in the body contribute to the development of pathology.

In particular, in the human digestive tract:

  • E. coli strains;
  • enterobacteria;
  • streptococcus, staphylococcus;
  • Klebsiella;
  • protea;
  • Candida mushrooms.

Pathogenic flora penetrates from the intestine or urethra through the blood and lymphatic vessels into the ducts of the prostate.

The progression of the disease can occur in stagnant processes. Poor circulation of the pelvis – a factor in inflammation, in which there is an increase in prostate tissue. This violation occurs due to:

  • overweight;
  • bad habits;
  • ingress of bacteria, viruses, fungal pathogens;
  • intracellular parasites;
  • hypothermia;
  • prolonged psycho-emotional stress;
  • pelvic injuries;

These factors create favorable conditions for the activation or ingestion of bacteria, since they impair the circulation of the small pelvis. They also provoke a decrease in the body’s defenses, which causes inflammation.

Types and forms

According to the degree of damage to the tissues of the gland, acute prostatitis is divided into forms:

  1. Catarrhal
  2. Follicular.
  3. Parenchymatous

In the catarrhal form, the inflammatory process affects the ducts of the internal secretion organ. Inflammation, spreading to the follicles and the prostate, develops follicular prostatitis. Severe parenchymal form appears with long-term infection with the involvement of scar tissue at the site of foci of destruction. This form is characterized by the growth of a purulent focus – an abscess.

In case of purulent inflammation, the treatment is performed stationary, sometimes the patient is on the operating table.

If the treatment is not carried out to the end or the patient did not consult the doctor in time, the disease takes a chronic course.

Bacterial prostatitis develops against the background of a specific and non-specific lesion. All genital infections, as well as associated diseases: tuberculosis, urethritis, cause a specific bacterial lesion.

Non-specific pathogens include:

  • viruses;
  • staphylococcus, streptococcus;
  • L-shaped bacteria.

Separately, also isolated viral and bacterial damage. The first type of inflammation causes herpes, a previous illness caused by viruses. Active manifestations of viral prostatitis are usually not observed. It is possible to detect pathology by palpation, when there is pain, there is a consolidation of the gland.

Bacterial lesion of the male endocrine organs is accompanied by noticeable pain, body reactions to the introduction of infection. Sexual intercourse and ejaculation with bacterial prostatitis are painful.


The disease is characterized by 4 main symptoms: pain, sexual dysfunction, urination disorders, psychological problems.
Common signs indicating bacterial prostatitis are:

  • Increased temperature.
  • Aches, weakness, fatigue.
  • Pain in the prostate.
  • Dysfunction urination.
  • Discomfort during bowel movements.
  • Psychological problems.
  • Decreased appetite.

The acute stage is indicated by symptoms with impaired urination and pain:

  • intense pain in the perineum, anal passage, external genital organs, lower abdomen;
  • radiating back pain, pelvic region;
  • urination with rezami;
  • purulent blotches in urine;
  • private toilet calls, including at night;
  • excretion of small portions of urine;
  • discontinuity, lethargy jet;
  • feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
  • intoxication with temperature indicators up to 40 ° C, fever, chills.

Chronic infectious prostatitis proceeds asymptomatic, prolonged, with periods of exacerbations and remission. The sluggish process with lumbago and periodic tingling in the groin, perineum joins violation of libido. There is a small discharge in the morning in the form of clear or turbid mucus from the urethra. As a rule, severe intoxication and pain is not observed. Signals signs of general and local status:

  • lethargy, irritability;
  • minor temperature reactions;
  • discomfort in the genital area, above the pubis;
  • pulling, dull or sharp pains or their absence;
  • impaired erectile function;
  • discomfort during urination.

The acute form of the disease makes itself felt immediately, so the man, as a rule, does not delay the visit to the doctor. Chronic course differs not vivid symptomatology, duration. In this case, the appeal to the urologist is usually delayed.


With acute and rapid course of the disease there is a risk of damage to neighboring organs. It can be:

  • orchitis (inflammation of the testicle);
  • infertility;
  • pyelonephritis;
  • cystitis;
  • vesiculitis (inflammation in the testes).

In addition to the complications of the male urogenital sphere, an uncured pathology promises peptic ulcer, vegetative dysfunction, which is aggravated by psycho-emotional disorders. Sluggish inflammation provokes the development of impotence, infertility, tumor-like formations.

Symptoms of chronic prostatitis and adenoma are similar, so we need accurate diagnosis to determine the disease. Prostatitis is a bacterial inflammation of the internal secretion organ, and adenoma is a benign node in the tissues of the prostate gland, which violates the act of urination.


In the diagnosis of acute and chronic prostatitis, the patient’s complaints are first clarified and a rectal digital examination is carried out. At the second stage, a number of laboratory tests are assigned:

  • General analysis of blood and urine.
  • Analysis of prostate juice and smear from the urethra.
  • PCR analysis.
  • Buck seeding prostate secretion.

Complete blood count is a compulsory diagnosis that allows to identify inflammatory reactions on the elements of the serum, to determine the general condition of the patient. Blood is taken from a vein.

An unpleasant procedure in the diagnosis of prostatitis is the analysis of the secret of the prostate. The patient stands in the knee-elbow position, the gland is massaged through the anus, the prostate juice is taken from the urethra. A gentle way to capture prostate secretion is spermogram.

Polymer chain reaction (PCR) is performed on latent infections. The method allows you to accurately identify pathogens by several molecules at the very beginning of the disease, to determine or exclude the origin of the infection, which helps to prescribe an effective treatment. The doctor receives the biomaterial from the urethra probe at a depth of 3-4 cm.

With the help of a prostate secretion sowing tank, microflora is detected that comes to the prostate gland from other body systems (oral cavity, intestines, urethra). Living in the gland, they cause suppuration. Therefore, seeding with antibiotic susceptibility gives an idea of ​​the prescription of an antibacterial course.

Additional research

Additional examinations may be necessary if the treatment was not effective or the information about the pathology is not enough. Transrectal ultrasound is a reliable, safe method of obtaining information about the state of the internal secretion organ, about the stage of the disease and the characteristics of the course. A special probe inserted into the rectum allows you to get as close as possible to the gland and get clear images.

Infectious prostatitis in combination with adenoma, detected by blood analysis to exclude the transition of diseases in oncology. The protein produced by the prostate gland enters the blood and by the serum one can judge the functioning of the prostate. For prophylaxis, every man after 40 years must pass a test for prostate specific antigen (PSA) every year.

Read about the treatment of bacterial prostatitis.

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