- The origin of sperm
- Life time in the body of a woman
- Lifetime in the urethra
- Life expectancy in the environment
- Sperm life in a condom
The duration of the existence of sperm cells is an important and topical issue for those who have plans to continue the race, and for those who are not yet ready for such a responsible step.
The origin of sperm
The scientific name for the birth of sperm is spermatogenesis. Spermatozoa originate and live in the testicles of adult males. Duration of sperm formation is about 74 days. During this period, they go through the stages of obtaining their own set of chromosomes, growing the tail, forming the motor apparatus and arranging DNA to survive in an unfavorable environment for them, which for them is the female body. After maturation, they accumulate at the exit of the deferent stream.
Spermatozoa matured and ready for fertilization live in the male body for up to a month.
With a long abstinence, sperm cells age, and then become unsuitable for fertilization. Therefore, regular sex life is needed to renew the seed.
With active sex life, when more than 4 ejaculations take place in 12 hours, there may not be enough mature cells for fertilization. For a greater likelihood of conception, it is necessary to refrain from sex for a couple of days for the production and maturation of new sperm.
Being in the body of a man, sperm cells are inactive. Their activity occurs when interacting with prostate juice in the process of ejaculation. After peristaltic contractions of the muscles, male cells are pushed along the vas deferens into the urethra. There they are mixed with the secrets of the prostate and the contents of the seminal vesicles. In this way, seminal fluid is obtained, which feeds the sperm with glucose and fructose, increases their mobility, protects against hyperacidity in the vaginal environment.
In the semen is approximately 5% of the sperm from the total volume of excreted fluid.
Read more: Ways to increase the quantity and improve the quality of sperm
After ejaculation, the replacement of discarded sperm, immediately comes a new party, which makes it possible for a healthy man to fertilize a woman with repeated ejaculations.
Life time in the body of a woman
The movement of gametes occurs due to flagella, they are also called the tails of the male germ cells. They can move at a speed of up to 0.1 mm per second.
With ejaculation, approximately 250 million spermatozoa are released in 2-5 ml of seminal fluid. For the female body, sperm is a foreign body with which its immunity begins to fight. Therefore, the environment in the vagina has a devastating effect on spermatozoa, and seminal fluid protects against the effects of acids, which the female immunity is trying to cope with strangers.
To achieve the ultimate goal, gametes must travel a distance of approximately 20 cm, which they overcome, moving against the movement of the fluid.
The part of the sperm that did not immediately die in the vagina, through the cervical canal of the cervix enters the uterus itself. For this they will need 1-2 minutes. At this stage, many male cells die because of the aggressive environment in the cervical canal. If a woman experiences an orgasm at this time, the mucous membrane becomes less viscous, the muscular wall of the uterus contracts and a retracting effect occurs, helping the sperm to penetrate further. Therefore, with simultaneous orgasm or reaching it immediately after ejaculation, the probability of conception increases.
Of the total number of sperm that enter the vagina, approximately 10 million reach the uterine cavity.
Spermatozoa retained in the vagina die after 2 hours.
In the uterus sperm penetrate in a few hours, and the most nimble in 1 hour. Here the environment is much friendlier for surviving gametes.
Before ovulation, a few days, in the female body appear mucous secretions produced by the cervical glands, which are beneficial for sperm (cervical mucus). In this mucus, male sex cells do not lose their functionality for several days, and in other periods they die after several hours in an unfavorable acidic environment. Because of this feature, the method of douching with lemon juice is popular in folk methods of preventing pregnancy.
In the uterus, sperm live and are suitable for fertilization for about 3-7 days.
When vaginal dysbiosis, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases in women increases the acidic environment, which reduces the likelihood of pregnancy. However, it remains, therefore, for those who are not planning a pregnancy, the use of contraceptives is a must.
From the uterus, the spermatozoa are advanced to the fallopian tubes, where fertilization should take place.
Trying to fertilize the egg will remain the strongest and brisk 3-4 thousand male cells. And only one can achieve the goal.
Given the fact that sperm live in the female’s genitals for up to 7 days, it is not always correct to consider the day of conception from the day when you had sexual intercourse.
There is a point of view that in some cases sperm cells survive in the period of menstruation, provided they enter the fallopian tubes before menstruation. After the end of hemopathy, they may still have the opportunity to fertilize an egg. This is important for women with early ovulation.
Lifetime in the urethra
After ejaculation, a certain part of the sperm remains in the urethra and on the foreskin of the penis. If, after ejaculation, there was no urination and no hygiene procedures were performed with the sexual organ, spermatozoa can live there from 10 minutes to 2 hours. And at the beginning of repeated sexual intercourse, these sperm are landed in the female organs and begin to advance towards their goal. Therefore, after the second unprotected intercourse, there is a high probability of pregnancy, even if it ended in an interruption.
Read: Consequences of interruption of sexual intercourse for men
Life expectancy in the environment
The life of the gamete in the open air is 2-3 hours. Therefore, during such a time, there is a chance of fertilization after sperm gets on the female genitals from other parts of the body, napkins, and underwear.
After evaporation of sperm fluids, sperm cells dry out and die.
When sperm is found in direct sunlight, in bright light, at temperatures above 38 ° C, in an acidic environment, the spermatozoa dies almost instantly or can stretch a maximum of 15-20 minutes.
Sperm life in a condom
The life time in a condom is approximately equal to the life time of male gametes in the open air – from a few minutes to 3 hours. In case of using spermicidal lubricant condoms, sperm cells die almost immediately.
An interesting video about egg fertilization:
To increase the life of sperm and successful conception, both sexual partners need to lead a healthy lifestyle, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies, you should use contraception and hygiene of the genitals.