- General description of the disease
In the list of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), chlamydia takes a leading position. Statistics found that this disease affects half the male population of the planet at reproductive age. To protect yourself from the unpleasant effects of chlamydia, you need to “know the enemy by sight” – to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of the disease and how to prevent it.
General description of the disease
Chlamydia is an infectious disease, the occurrence of which is provoked by gram-negative intracellular pathogens – chlamydia. These microorganisms can not be considered neither bacteria nor viruses. By their properties, they are close to parasites that multiply inside the cells of their carrier.
Chlamydia is tolerated by both men and women. Men are less sensitive to this disease. The infection is transmitted sexually (vaginally and anally), so there is a chance of infection during unprotected sexual contact (especially with a random partner). On average, infection occurs in one of four cases.
According to estimates, on the globe about a billion people are infected with chlamydia. In a year, the infection is picked up by up to 100 million people.
Household infection is less common. It is dangerous to shake hands with the patient, because chlamydia may be on his hands. But the probability of being infected while using common cutlery, crockery, books is not so high. The fact is that pathogens do not last long outside the human body – from 24 to 30 hours . In addition, the concentration of pathogens on surrounding objects is small enough – this number is not enough for infection. Mass transmission of chlamydia occurs just during intercourse.
You will be interested to know: what is the average rate of sexual intercourse .
However, it was found that under conditions of high humidity, chlamydia retain their activity for up to two days . Therefore, to visit the bath and sauna with a carrier of the disease is not recommended.
Chlamydia is called urogenital because its pathogens affect both the urinary system and the sexual system.
The incubation period is 14-30 days .
Chlamydia usually “does not go alone.” Others, such as gonorrhea, are also transmitted along with this infection. On the background of urogenital chlamydia can develop comorbidities:
- Chlamydia conjunctivitis;
The development of these diseases is caused by the fact that pathogens reach the hands from the surface of the genital organs, and from there to the eye shell or the mouth (and then to the respiratory system). These conditions are favorable for reproduction of chlamydia.
The main route of infection with chlamydia alone is unprotected vaginal or anal contact with the carrier. Chlamydia is not transmitted from a sick woman to a man during oral sex.
The entry of pathogens into the human body does not always lead to the development of the disease. Chlamydia begin to actively proliferate and colonize mucous cells only when the protective response of the body is weakened, therefore the main reason for the introduction is the interruption of the human immune system . This phenomenon is enhanced by such factors:
- Stress .
Any nervous shock affects the state of the human body, disrupting its full functioning. Due to excessive stress, the body dramatically weakens, and this primarily affects the immunity.
- Chronic fatigue, lack of sleep, smoking.
Perceived by the body as strong stress factors.
- Improper nutrition.
Improper nutrition provokes avitaminosis and a lack of vital energy, causing the body’s defenses to suffer. This effect is enhanced by alcoholic drinks, fast food, instant noodles, soda.
These phenomena have a detrimental effect on the body, and it is no longer able to fight off harmful microorganisms.
In half of the cases, urogenital chlamydia in men is asymptomatic . Despite this, the latent form of chlamydia is dangerous for the sexual partner.
The disease manifests itself through these symptoms:
- general malaise;
- a slight increase in temperature (not more than 1 ° C);
- itching and irritation of the urethra;
- discomfort during urination;
- turbid color of urine;
- clear, purulent, or bleeding when urine is eliminated from the body, ejaculated, or after sleep;
- sometimes – redness of the urinary orifice, easy swelling;
- pain in the groin and lower back.
These symptoms do not worry much about their carrier, and after a while they may disappear altogether. Meanwhile, the disease is actively developing in the body of a man. From the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the genital organs of chlamydia, they pass into the deep layers of connective tissue, causing serious inflammation. When a cell divides, it transmits harmful microorganisms to the daughter cells – the affected area increases.
The symptoms of many STIs are similar. Chlamydia in its manifestations resembles urethritis , cystitis , gonorrhea, prostatitis . Therefore, it is impossible to determine at home exactly what a man got infected with. For an accurate diagnosis, you must consult a doctor.
Diagnosis of urogenital chlamydia is carried out by the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For analysis, samples of biological fluids are taken – ejaculate, prostate juice. The material is examined for the presence of chlamydial DNA. Find out the lifetime of sperm .
This method allows you to clearly identify the pathogen antigen, even when the sample contains only a few sections of its DNA chain. The effectiveness of the PCR method is very high – equivalent to 100%.
A comprehensive examination for the detection of chlamydia also includes serological diagnosis. Her methods are based on the detection of antibodies to the disease in the patient’s blood.
During the enzyme immunoassay, antibodies capable of interacting with chlamydia are added to the selected ejaculate. In the presence of pathogens in the seminal fluid, antibodies form special complexes with them. Antigen-antibody pair formation, researchers determine that a man is infected. If the reaction does not happen – the body is clean.
If chlamydia is found in a man, then all his sexual partners should also be examined.
The difficulties of treating urogenital chlamydia in men lie in the fact that patients are late to seek help. Since the symptoms of the disease are unobtrusive, men are not in a hurry to visit the doctor. Meanwhile, chlamydia progresses, developing into a chronic form, which is much more difficult to fight with.
When the first symptoms appear, it is necessary to visit a doctor.
The treatment of male chlamydia is done by urologists and venereologists, as well as infectiologists.
It is difficult to affect chlamydia from the outside, because they live and function inside the cell. To successfully combat chlamydia, potent antibiotics are prescribed. Microorganisms are most sensitive to such groups of antibiotics:
Preparations of the cephalosporin or penicillin series in the treatment of chlamydia are useless due to their low biological activity against this type of pathogens.
In order to choose the right drug and calculate the course of the reception, the doctor draws attention to the following factors:
- age of the patient;
- age of infection;
- severity of symptoms;
- the patient has individual intolerance to any drug;
- the presence of diseases associated with chlamydia (or other STIs);
- the presence of other chronic diseases.
When conducting various tests, the doctor collects information about:
- intestinal microbiocenosis;
- the strength of the immune response;
- health status of the kidneys, pancreas and liver.
Based on this information, the doctor prescribes an individual treatment.
The most popular macrolide antibiotics are:
- Hemomitsin, Sumamed, Zytromaks (active ingredient – azithromycin).
- Clarbact (clarithromycin).
- Vilprafen (Jossamycin).
Against chlamydia, such tetracycline drugs are effective:
- Unidox Solutub.
They include the same active ingredient – doxycycline.
The most numerous class of antibiotics to combat urogenital chlamydia is fluoroquinolones:
- Floxin, Tarivid, Ofloksin, Zanotsin.
- Norbaktin, Nolitsin.
- Tavanik, Levostar, Glevo, Fleksid.
- Tsiprinol, Tsiprobay, Tsiprobid, Tsifran.
In the treatment of male chlamydia in its advanced form, sometimes two antibiotics are prescribed at once: ciprofloxacin in combination with azithromycin, doxycycline or rifampicin. Means in such combinations do not suppress the action of each other, but work in a complex, enhancing the effectiveness of treatment.
The fight against chlamydia is supported by such antifungal medications as:
Due to the use of strong antibiotics, the intestinal function is disturbed. To restore it, you need to take:
Also desirable is the intake of vitamins, immunomodulators, antihistamines.
Standard therapy lasts 10-14 days , but in particularly advanced cases it can take up to a month.
It is important to understand that the drugs and the timing of their admission for each patient are selected individually. Only a qualified doctor can determine the dosage and treatment schedule. Therefore, any self-medication must be excluded. It is not desirable to choose antibiotics yourself or resort to the help of traditional medicine: this will only aggravate the situation of the patient.
The consequences of chlamydia are dangerous to human health. In the absence of proper treatment, chlamydia causes the following complications:
- chronic prostatitis ;
- urethritis ;
- cystitis ;
- inflammation of the testes and appendages;
- malfunction of the bladder;
- deterioration of erection (up to its complete loss);
- Reiter’s syndrome;
Hostile microorganisms, multiplying, occupy new territories in the body and cause such diseases:
- joint damage;
- skin lesion;
- heart muscle dysfunction.
In order to avoid the described complications, the patient is obliged to take prescribed medications and to follow the regimen prescribed by the doctor.
Urogenital chlamydia causes a huge blow to health, and therefore it is necessary to protect yourself from this disease. For prevention, the following measures should be taken:
- Abandon casual sex.
The more a man has sexual partners, the more he risks to catch the infection.
- Use a condom.
This contraceptive not only prevents pregnancy, but also saves from STIs. If a man is in a long-term monogamous relationship, this is not a reason for refusing condoms. Read the articles on this topic: How to choose the right condom in size and quality and How to quickly and correctly put on a condom
- Do not have sexual intercourse with the carrier.
During treatment, the patient is prohibited any sexual contact. And if a man knows about the illness of his partner, it is better to refuse the act.
- Avoid stress.
It is important to limit yourself from nervous breakdowns, unnecessary experiences. Depression caused by problems at work or in personal life, severely hits the body. Therefore, the key to success is a positive attitude.
- Eat right.
In the diet it is important to include fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, meat, dairy products. From the empty carbohydrates that are contained in sweets, soda and flour, it is desirable to refuse. It is not necessary to completely exclude the consumption of these products.
- Observe mode.
Full sleep and organized leisure will relieve tension and replenish the body’s defenses. A fresh, rested body is always ready to fight off harmful microorganisms.
- Lead a healthy lifestyle.
Hardening, sports, daily walks – all of this has a positive effect on health. For example, pump up a press , learn how to pull up on a horizontal bar , perform exercises to increase biceps . These activities will strengthen the immune system and increase resistance to pathogens. It is important to give up smoking and drinking.
- Timely surveyed.
Both partners should be periodically examined by a venereologist. Contact the hospital for help is after the first, even weak, manifestations of STIs.
Chlamydia does not manifest itself for a long time. Weak symptoms (or their complete absence) mislead a man and dull his vigilance. Meanwhile, microorganisms fill the urogenital system, destroying it and causing dire consequences. To protect yourself from chlamydia, you must comply with all preventive measures. And at the slightest suspicion of the disease it is necessary to go to the hospital.